The concept of race has been widely propagated since Carl Linnaeus published the first taxonomic classification of human rase to four distinct racial groups—American, European, Asian, and African. Such division is mainly based on physical characteristics, such as: skin color, shape of eyes, nose, head, physical structure, and geographic distribution. Racial differences have a great importance in human evolution, showing us where we came from and how we changed through the centuries following the nature conditions. The idea of division is designed to have biological significance and to be used as an interpretation of biological differences between people, but it's often used as a social concept that has led to slavery and genocide in the past. We can't change what happened but we CAN change our perception.
How come we seem so different and why?
Let us start with the most obvious characteristic, skin color. We all have the same pigment in the skin, melanin, but not in the same amount. Negroid and Mongoloid people are darker and have a thicker skin than Caucasians. The reason is very simple. If you live in the tropics dark skin is an adaptation to a large amount of sunlight, and protects them from UV rays, sunburns and skin cancer. Dark-skinned people living in low sunlight environments have been recorded to be very susceptible to vitamin D deficiency due to reduced vitamin D synthesis. Chronic deficiencies in vitamin D may also be linked with breast, prostate, colon, ovarian, and possibly other types of cancers. Recent studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to autoimmune diseases, hypertension, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and incidence of memory loss. Since the skin is thicker they have less wrinkles than Caucasians whose light skin is on the other hand, adaptation to less sunlight, and allows better absorption of sun and therefore generation of vitamin D, but the overexposure to sunlight also can lead to cell carcinoma, which is a common form of skin cancer. Every organism, including human adapts to the living conditions in order to survive.
Caucasian race likes milk and milk products. The prevalence of lactose intolerance is lowest in populations with a long history of dependence on unfermented milk products as an important food source.
Mongoloid race is a group of people with the lowest number of sweat glands. Therefore, the scent of their body is weak and people of other races have weird smell to them.
The primary characteristic of east Asian eyes is called the epicanthic fold, and we believe it may have evolved to protect the eye from harsh winds or it helped with snow blindness during the last ice age and simply stuck a round in those populations.
It is well publicized that Negroid race have a higher percentage of fast twitch muscle fibers and higher levels of glycotic and phosphogenic enzyme activity levels. Because of that they are good in sports like sprinting, jumping, basketball... Research has shown that the Negroid baby develops earlier than white babies. While all babies are delicate, the Negroid child inherently has some resistance, that is another proof for the Negroid physical strength.
As humans migrated throughout the world, populations encountered distinct pathogens, and natural selection increased the prevalence of alleles that are advantageous in the new ecosystems in both host and pathogens.
The allele for sickle cell anemia is much more frequent in Negroid than in other races, while the allele for cystic fibrosis is much more common in Caucasians. The albinism syndrome shows parallels with sickle cell anemia. The carrier of the sickle cell mutation is at an advantage in regions where malaria is hyperendemic, which includes large areas of Africa. It is postulated that the albinism carrier may actually be at an advantage, possibly also with malaria as the selective agent. It has been suggested that mosquitoes are less likely to alight and take blood from a lighter-skinned person and thus the albinism carrier may be at an advantage over darker-skinned people.
The same gene variant, or group of gene variants, may produce different effects in different populations depending on differences in the gene variants, or groups of gene variants, they interact with. One example is the rate of progression to AIDS and death in HIV–infected patients. In Caucasians, HHC haplotypes were associated with disease retardation, particularly a delayed progression to death, while for Negroides, possession of HHC haplotypes was associated with disease acceleration. In contrast, while the disease-retarding effects of the CCR2-641 allele were found in Negroids, they were not found in Caucasians.
Overall, African-American women have a lower rate of breast cancer compared to white women. However, there are differences when looking by age:
The reasons behind these differences are under study. They may include differences in prevalence rates of some reproductive and lifestyle factors related to breast cancer risk as well as differences in tumor biology. Recent research indicates that there are many factors, including ethnicity, that may contribute to the development and survival rates for some cancers. Some of the factors are:
Racial differences in intelligence, personality, and behavior have been discussed since ancient times. There was a lot of studies on this subject showing that Caucasians had the largest brains, followed by Mongoloids and Negroids. Samuel Morton (1849) concluded that these differences in brain size accounted for the race differences in intelligence. All of these studies have been concerned with two problems, is the brain size the evidence, and in which degree these differences are determined by genetic and environmental factors. People were separated by geographical barriers in different parts of world and they involved into different races with genetic differences in morphology, blood groups, and the incidence of genetic diseases and genotipes for intelligence, but there is no compelling evidence for genetic factors, therefore there is no superior or an inferior race. Recent I.Q. tests of people throughout the world have found that, with allowance for cultural differences, the I.Q. ranges of all extant identified races is extremely close. The assumptions that go into believing that there are racial differences in intelligence are absurd ones.
Are we really so different?
Today, with certainty we can say that we belong to species of Homo sapiens, and that all races share more than 99% of the same genetic material, which tells us that the differences are not that big at all, there is more genetic variation within these racial groups than between them. And all of these differences, some more visible than others had a role in our evolution, allowing us to survive until now. Yes, we are different, different and special. Each and one of us, regardless of group they sad we belong. We are all people with the ability to think, learn, observe, feel, and these characteristics separates us more than any genetic ones. So, we are different by the way of thinking rather than the form of the head and brain size, different by our feelings rather than color of skin. We are all created equal.
Do you still see a different skin color?
“No one is born hating another person because of the color of his skin, or his background, or his religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite.”- Nelson Mandela
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